Injuries of micro-mobility users continue to drop dramatically, MMfE released micro-mobility accident data shows

May 2024 


In 2023, the number of shared e-scooter and e-bike injuries has continued to fall. This improvement has been achieved thanks to different factors. Technological innovation enabled operators to deploy newer models, while at the same time, operators and cities have invested in education campaigns, and cities have taken action to improve infrastructure.

In comparison with 2022, the number of all reported injuries per million trips declined by 44% for shared e-scooters. With regards to the number of incidents requiring medical treatment and fatal injuries, incidents dropped by 19%.

The trend for shared e-bikes is similar, as the number of all reported injuries per million trips declined by 39%, while the number of incidents requiring medical treatment and fatal injuries dropped by 16%.

When comparing different transport modes, MMfE data shows that the risk of injury requiring a medical treatment while riding an e-scooter is slightly lower than with driving an e-bike, 3.3/million km and 3.9/million km for e-scooters and e-bikes respectively.

Overwhelming majority of injuries were caused due to fall of the user or a collision with a heavier motor vehicle. As data from the European Commission for 2023 show, almost 70% of vulnerable road user fatalities, including cyclists and shared micro-mobility users involve motor vehicles. These findings confirm the recent study by OECD, the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) and the International Transport Forum (ITF) which has reported that the main reasons behind injuries of micro-mobility users remain inadequate infrastructure and the intoxication by alcohol while the devices employed by shared micro-mobility operators are the safest in comparison with the ones owned by individuals. MMfE continues its determination to achieve Vision Zero and has shared its recommendations which require action beyond micro mobility operators, including investments in safe infrastructure across the EU and support for law enforcement authorities for consequent and fair treatment of traffic rule violators on e-scooters, bikes and cars.

2023 MMfE data is based on more than 300 million e-scooters journeys covering more than 540 million kilometres and more than 58 million e-bikes rides covering more than 139 million kilometres. The figures only include shared micro-mobility, which are subject to strict rules including speed caps and geofencing, unlike privately owned micro mobility devices. The data has been aggregated based on incident reports by Bird, Bolt, Dott, Lime, TIER and Voi, and follows the same methodology as for the years 2021 and 2022, and covers the EU27, Israel, Norway, Switzerland and the UK.

Christy Pearson, Co-Chair of Micro-Mobility for Europe:
We are glad to see that our efforts in vehicle design and education, combined with cities’ efforts to improve infrastructure translate to a significant drop in injuries related to shared micro-mobility. However, the journey is not over and we are committed to continue our work towards Vision Zero. This also requires cities’ continued efforts, in particular with regards to motor vehicles, as almost 70% of cyclist and e-scooter rider fatalities involve motor vehicles, which highlights the need for safe infrastructure for vulnerable road users as well as reducing speed limits for motorised vehicles.

MMfE statement on the Signature of the European Declaration on Cycling

April 2024 


Micro-Mobility for Europe welcomes today’s signature of the European Declaration on Cycling. EU Member States, the European Commission and the European Parliament are joining forces and are calling for more investments in infrastructure, improving road safety and supporting multimodality.

Improvements in cycling infrastructure will also benefit micro-mobility users as they share the same infrastructure and rely on national, regional and local decision-makers to move away from car centric spatial planning. Promoting investments in cycling infrastructure and acknowledging the role cycling can play for first/last-mile transport and complementing public transport are aspects that also apply to shared micro-mobility.

Micro-Mobility for Europe has contributed to the process of drawing up the Declaration as part of its work in the European Commission Expert Group on Urban Mobility.

Co-Chair Marc Naether stated: “Today is a historic moment that shows that cycling, walking and shared micro-mobility are increasingly receiving the attention of EU policy-makers, as they offer more sustainable and efficient modes of transport and are alternatives to privately-owned cars in urban areas. Looking ahead, we count on policy-makers to take ambitious action during the upcoming term and to monitor actions taken on national level to make the Declaration a reality.”

OECD-ITF and NTUA on Micro-mobility Safety

March 2024 


MMfE welcomes the important work of OECD-ITF and the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) on micro-mobility safety. Thanks to combined efforts between the industry, cities and regulators, we see that shared micro-mobility is becoming safer as the casualty risk for shared e-scooters drops by 26% in Europe. Almost 80% of cyclist and e-scooter rider fatalities involve motor vehicles, which highlights the need for safe infrastructure for vulnerable road users as well as reducing speed limits for motorised vehicles.

MMfE members have already implemented many recommended measures, like speed caps, mandatory initial rider training or age verification where mandated by law. Also, the tendency of shared vehicles to become bigger and sturdier as recommended by the report, is starting to show positive results.

There is more to be done and MMfE and its members are committed to continue collaborating closely with all stakeholders towards Vision Zero. At the same time, increasing safety is a shared goal that requires action by all stakeholders beyond micro-mobility operators.

  • Reducing overall speed limits for motorised traffic in urban areas

  • Investment in safe infrastructure across the EU

  • Supporting cities, for example with data, in proactively maintaining micro-mobility infrastructure

  • Supporting cities in awareness raising and education campaigns

  • Supporting law enforcement authorities for consequent and fair treatment of traffic rule violators on e-scooters, bikes and cars

Continuing to invest into reasonable and sustainable safety technology if proven effective
Our vision is a future where any ride of less than 5km can be made safely on a shared micro-mobility vehicle. In order for this to happen, we are collaborating with all other organisations representing Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) and sustainable urban mobility stakeholders to challenge the dominance of the car in our urban mobility.

European Mobility Week Workshop

March 2024


Micro Mobility for Europe (MMfE) represented by Christy Pearson (Voi) and Amandine Mauvais (Dott) was invited by Eurocities to host a discussion table during the European Mobility Week Workshop in Brussels. The workshop was organised by DG MOVE and Eurocities. During the workshop, the European Commission, representatives of municipalities, national coordinators, and mobility operators together designed the ideal shared urban space.

Participants of the discussion table acknowledged the increasing numbers of shared micro-mobility devices in the past years and that cities need to create suitable frameworks to accommodate new modes of transport. During the discussion, an agreement was found that cities should not be designed for cars. Parking has been a challenge for both, industry and municipalities. MMfE representatives highlighted the lack of dedicated parking infrastructure for shared e-scooters and presented best practices from Stockholm and Ghent with the use of existing bicycle rack infrastructure. Participants agreed to replace car parking with parking for shared micro-mobility devices.

Technical requirements for e-scooters

March 2024


Micro-mobility presents a valuable opportunity to enhance urban mobility in Europe. Using aggregated data from the members of Micro-mobility for Europe (MMfE), more than 240 million trips by shared e-scooter took place in 2022 across 515 cities in Europe. European cities can unlock the potential of micro-mobility by adopting common European technical standards and investing in infrastructure. Micro-mobility provides citizens with flexible and clean options for first and last-mile trips and addresses congestion, pollution, and traffic safety challenges. 


Status quo: how are e-scooters regulated at the EU level? 

E scooters are currently excluded from the Machinery Directive’s scope and Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 and are regulated under the EN17128 standard in Europe. This CEN standard has been in force since April 2021, replacing the previous standard EN14619. 

EN17128 specifies the safety requirements and test methods on a vehicle and component level. It also identifies the marking and information Personal Light Electric Vehicles (PLEVs) need to carry to reduce the risk of injuries to third parties and the rider during use, i.e., when used as intended and under conditions of misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer. 


Pain points for micro-mobility operators: the absence of a harmonised framework 

MMfE believes, with its current content, that the EN17128 standard can serve as a basis to regulate e-scooter vehicles in Europe, setting adequate technical requirements for the safety and structural integrity of e-scooters. 

The main limitation observed to date does not lie in the standard’s content but in its applicability in Europe, which varies significantly among Member States. As EN17128 is not linked to a specific piece of European legislation, Member States have been able to deviate from the standard and impose their own frameworks at a national level – as is the case in the Netherlands, Spain, Germany, and Ireland, amongst others. 

This regional variance has created significant operating challenges for micro-mobility operators who must navigate a patchwork of national rules regarding vehicle classification, hardware requirements, market entry procedures, and applicable traffic rules. Such market fragmentation has also created great uncertainty for users of the traffic and road use rules that apply to different micro-mobility modes across the region, ultimately hindering the habitual uptake of more sustainable mobility. 


MMfE’s recommendation on the way forward: European harmonisation 

MMfE calls upon the Commission to ensure that harmonised rules apply to e-scooters across Europe. Such harmonisation should encourage innovation and permit the growth of a transport mode with great potential to help the EU achieve its climate goals. 

In this context, MMfE would like to propose a few options to update and harmonise the European regulatory framework for e-scooters: 

  • Inclusion of EN 17128 standard under the Machinery Regulation: MMfE welcomes the intention of the CEN/TC/354 Committee to include the EN17128 standard in the scope of the Machinery Regulation. MMfE would support the inclusion of the standard in the scope of the Machinery Regulation, should it ensure the consistent application of the standard by all Member States and prevent the design of national regulations. MMfE is open to studying the possible additional technical requirements around noise and vibrations together with the experts of the Committee.

  • Type-approval system for e-scooters: The most critical element for MMfE in redefining European legislation for e-scooters is to ensure a harmonised practice and standard is used across Europe. Should the inclusion of EN17128 in the Machinery Regulation not be sufficient to ensure the application of the standard across all European Member States, MMfE would be open to exploring the possibility of an EU wide type-approval system for e-scooters, which is structured around a light homologation procedure. MMfE is confident that Germany’s regulatory framework for e-scooters can serve as a solid foundation for such a system. This document lists the hardware requirements and vehicle tests, taken from the German regulatory framework, that we believe would streamline the homologation procedure while also prioritising the safety of our passengers and vehicles.

  • Design of a new standard by IECEE: The IECEE is in the process of devising its own standard ‘IEC 63281-1:2023’ for electrically powered transport devices, or ‘e-Transporters’ for sharing and public use. Although the standard addresses different electrical, mechanical and environmental aspects of EN17128, introducing an additional standard would only further fragment the current regulatory framework. It is imperative that CEN-CENELEC and IECEE collaborate to create a unified standard that not only offers greater legal certainty to the industry but also eliminates any overlap between the two standards.



MMfE’s key priority for redefining European legislation of e-scooters, is to ensure harmonised practices are used across Europe. This will promote the growth of a transport mode that has a great role to play in ensuring minimum safety standards, reducing car dependency and encouraging greater uptake of micro mobility, in line with European climate objectives. MMfE remains available to discuss and collaborate with relevant stakeholders and institutions to identify the best legal and technical mechanisms to achieve this goal.

MaaS Alliance and MMfE forge strategic partnership to advance sustainable urban mobility

February 2024 


The MaaS Alliance and Micro-Mobility for Europe (MMfE) are pleased to announce the formation of a strategic partnership aimed at accelerating the development and implementation of sustainable mobility solutions in cities in Europe and beyond. This landmark collaboration brings together two leading organizations dedicated to shaping the future of urban transportation and fostering innovation in Mobility as a Service (MaaS) and micro-mobility.

As global public-private partnerships, both the MaaS Alliance and MMfE have been at the forefront of advocating for sustainable mobility practices and promoting the adoption of innovative technologies to address urban transportation challenges. With a shared vision of creating more inclusive, efficient, and environmentally friendly mobility systems, the Parties have joined forces to drive progress in this critical domain.

Under the terms of the strategic partnership, the Parties will leverage their respective expertise and resources to collaborate on key initiatives aimed at advancing sustainable and data-driven mobility transformation. This partnership will facilitate knowledge-sharing, foster innovation, and promote the widespread adoption of MaaS and micro-mobility solutions worldwide.

Key areas of focus for the collaboration include:

  • Exchange of Knowledge
  • Collaborating on the realisation of the Mobility Knowledge Loop
  • Strategic positioning of the Open Mobility Ecosystem

Commenting on the partnership, Roelof Hellemans, Secretary General of the MaaS Alliance, stated: “We are excited to join forces with Micro Mobility for Europe to advance our shared goals of promoting sustainable urban mobility. By combining our strengths and resources, we believe we can accelerate the transition towards more inclusive, efficient, and environmentally friendly transportation systems.”

Echoing these sentiments, Marc Naether, Co-Chair at Micro-Mobility for Europe, added: “This strategic partnership represents a significant milestone in our efforts to revolutionise urban transportation. By collaborating with the MaaS Alliance, we can amplify our impact and drive positive change in cities in the EU.”


MaaS Alliance

The MaaS Alliance is a global public-private partnership creating the foundations for a common approach to Mobility as a Service (MaaS), unlocking the economies of scale needed for successful implementation and take-up of MaaS in Europe and beyond.


Micro-Mobility for Europe

MMfE is a coalition of shared micro-mobility providers offering short-term rental of electric scooters and bicycles. Our members want to ultimately transform urban mobility by creating a sustainable transport ecosystem together with the cities in which they operate.

Parking challenges & recommendations

November 2023


Since the beginning of the shared micro-mobility industry, parking has
been a persistent and serious challenge that cities and operators must
solve together. This guide outlines the challenges related to parking
shared e-scooters and e-bikes, offers recommendations, and provides
case studies for EU stakeholders looking to solve this essential piece to
ensure micro-mobility’s success in cities.

Micro-Mobility for Europe identified best practices and recommendations
on parking of shared micro-mobility devices.

Lack of dedicated parking

  • Mandatory physical parking spots in dense areas
  • Make use of existing bicycle rack infrastructure so long as there is
    enough room for private bicyclesReplace car parking spaces
  • Locate physical infrastructure to complement public transport
  • Consider safety when picking parking locations
  • Use incentives to direct riders to parking infrastructure and education
    about local parking rules
  • Stationless parking for less dense areas

Competition for urban space

  • Clearly designated space for micro-mobility vehicles

Public education gaps

  • Overcome gaps with obvious and intuitive rules
  • City and operator partnership for direct education
  • Use operator data to drive interventions

Compliance measurement and enforcement

  • Technology solutions to vet misparking
  • Allow penalties to consider circumstances
  • Standard escalation process before penalties
  • Bring penalties into line with other modes

See the full article here.

Shared e-scooters in Malta

November 2023


Micro-Mobility for Europe expresses disappointment over the recent decision to ban rental e-scooters in Malta. This restrictive measure overlooks the benefits of shared e-scooters in enhancing urban mobility and combating climate change. With more than 1.4 million trips covering a total of 2.4 million km, demand for shared e-scooters in Malta is high. If shared e-scooters were banned, there is a risk that these trips will be done using less sustainable modes in the future. 

Micro-Mobility for Europe emphasizes the importance of balanced and evidence-based policy-making, structured around close collaboration with authorities to tap into micro-mobility’s potential to create safer and more sustainable cities. We call on authorities to exchange constructively with shared micro-mobility operators and civil society organisations to address challenges and find solutions that enable citizens to choose from a wide portfolio of mobility options, including shared e-scooters. Enabling a constructive dialogue is of highest importance to us, and our Parking Guide provides details on challenges and recommendations. 


Friends of the Earth Malta and ROTA Malta endorse this statement. 

Friends of the Earth Malta has been active in the environmental field in Malta since 1985, and campaigns on some of today’s most pressing environmental and social issues including climate, energy and mobility. 

ROTA Malta is a cycling advocacy group dedicated to promoting cycling as a sustainable and efficient mode of transportation on the Maltese islands. ROTA Malta works towards creating safer cycling infrastructure and advocating for policies that support and encourage cycling as a means of commuting and recreation. 

Micro-Mobility for Europe is a coalition of shared micro-mobility providers such as short-term rental of electric scooters and bicycles. Our members want to ultimately transform urban mobility by creating a sustainable transport ecosystem together with the cities in which they operate.

Political priorities for Micro-Mobility 2024-2029

November 2023


Micro-Mobility for Europe has joined forces with Transport & Environments’ Clean Cities Campaign and the Urban Intergroup at the European Parliament and set out policy priorities for the next term. 

  • Priority 1: Dedicate EU funds to foster dedicated infrastructure for micro-mobility, including cycling

  • Priority 2: Promote the use of shared micro-mobility as a key to reduce dependency on privately owned-cars and create Day of Micro-Mobility

  • Priority 3: Harmonise vehicle categories and encourage harmonised rules on the use of micro-mobility without creating new hurdles for the use of these vehicles and services

  • Priority 4: Encourage multi-modal ticketing and the sale of public transport tickets

Jens Müller, Deputy Director and Head of Policy and Research, Clean Cities Campaign:

“Shared e-bikes and e-scooters are crucial to unlocking new ways of moving around cities -they are flexible, fast and don’t pollute the air we breathe. Policy-makers should tap into their full potential for reducing cars use. This requires more cycle lanes, dedicated parking areas and better rules to protect all road users. The EU can play its role by redirecting funding from cars to shared mobility and promoting the integration with public transport.”

Marc Naether, Co-Chair of Micro-Mobility for Europe:

“Ahead of the EP Elections in 2024, we have drawn up policy priorities together with our partners from T&E’s Clean Cities Campaign and the Urban Intergroup of the European Parliament. Shared micro-mobility can be a key enabler to reduce emissions, strengthen public transport and increase accessibility, and to seize its opportunities, we have outlined priorities that we would like EU institutions to focus on in the next term.

These include the need to invest in infrastructure, promote the use of shared micro-mobility to reduce dependency on private cars, the creation of a Day of Micro-Mobility, harmonising vehicle categories and enabling multi-modal ticketing.”

MMfE joins call on national governments to back stricter air pollution limits

October 2023 


On 31 October, Micro-Mobility for Europe joined a coalition of transport companies and associations in calling for accelerating solutions to reduce toxic air pollution, particularly in cities and urban areas. With regards to the revision of the Ambient Air Quality Directive, we are calling on Member States to support an ambitious text which reflects the EU’s commitment to human health and the economy.

Members of Micro-Mobility for Europe are offering sustainable mobility solutions that complement public transport. In addition, together with other shared and collective modes, micro-mobility reduces dependency on private car ownership. Key to the uptake of shared micro-mobility is investment into infrastructure that ensures safety for all traffic participants.

Find the letter here.